Greenbuddies tips – March 2020

What are EU ambitions in energy sector in near future?

​​​​​​​New leadership of EU has declared quite clearly that the decarbonization of all areas in EU will be high priority over next years.Before Christmas came Ursula von der Leyen, the president of European Commission with a “green deal” a package of goals and plans how to decrease greenhouse gas emissions over next decades.

The new leadership of the EU is even more ambitious in the field of the sustainability and emissions cutting than the government of the J.C. Juncker. For example the current goal of reding the CO2 emissions is to lower it by 40% by 2030 in compare to year 1990. Now regarding the released drafts of the green deal this goal should be increased to minimum 50 %, ideally up to 55 %. As stated by the European Commission, energy sector is responsibly for more than 75 % o the EU´s greenhouse gas emissions.

The new cabinet also considers as one of the steps to set up an import duty on the products being imported in the EU. Since the producers in EU are obliged to buy the CO2 allowances, this carbon tax would ensure that producers out of EU couldn’t take leverage of milder CO2 regulation in the third countries and produce and import their product cheaper.

 

Will lack of EV charging infrastructure slow down E-mobility uptake?

When you have asked most electric-vehicle (EV) shoppers about major roadblocks for accelerated EV extension recently, then poor range and limited attractiveness would be most likely at the top of the bill. Now, however, on my business trips I experienced more and more insiders talk often about a lack of charging infrastructure as the obstacle to EV adoption. And indeed, it sounds rather logical, that with EV prices declining and ranges expanding, insufficient charging ability could soon become the top barrier. McKinsey had published some time ago an interesting study dealing with this topic – so let me introduce you to some of the key ideas:

Their base-case scenario for EV adoption suggests approximately 120 million EVs could be on the road by 2030 in China, the European Union, and the United States. Along with different levels of EV adoption across regions, structural aspects will make charging-station demand highly localized. For illustration consider a smaller German or Austrian city with many single-family low-rise homes that have parking garages, and London, where high-rise multi-unit apartment dwellings are in great numbers. These two cities will have extremely different EV charging-infrastructure needs.

The energy consumed at home and in the workplace will depend on the number of chargers installed and the amount of energy those chargers provide. Home charging will depend on whether EV owners have garages and on their income demographics. Charger penetration at work will predominantly reflect employer choice or regulatory requirements.
However, people do not only use their vehicles to drive to and from work. Approximately 3 to 6 percent of total miles driven involve long-distance trips that average more than 170 km. Even with a full charge leaving home, most of today’s EVs cannot make that round-trip without recharging. This makes the case for long-distance chargers.
Combined home, work, and long-distance charging could in theory cover an EV owner’s entire energy demand. While potentially true for drivers who use an EV as a second car only for commuting or errands, this scenario is unlikely at scale for several reasons. For instance, drivers without chargers at home or work must charge in public; drivers who exceed their battery range on a given day may need to visit fast-charge stations; and drivers who forget to charge at home or don’t have home chargers must rely on other options, making the case for public charging.
People tend to follow a charging pattern that starts at home. Most individual passenger cars remain parked for eight to 12 hours at night, and home charging can be easy and often cheaper than charging elsewhere. The reasons: in most countries, residential electricity is cheaper than commercial or industrial electricity, and most charging can happen overnight when off-peak electricity prices are lower.
In the European Union, as EVs go mainstream, charging will likely shift toward public options and away from the home over time, with the share of home charging declining from approximately 75 percent in 2020 to about 40 percent by 2030. That’s because more middle- and lower-income households without home-charging options will buy EVs from 2020 onward.

In the near term, low levels of public charging should therefore not significantly hinder EV adoption in the European Union.
The next question in addition to where people will charge concerns the type of technology they will use. Three broad categories of EV charging infrastructure exist today:

  • Alternate-current (AC) charging, where an in-car inverter converts AC to direct current (DC), which then charges the battery
  • DC charging, this charging system converts the AC from the grid to DC before it enters the car and charges the battery without the need for an inverter
  • Wireless charging, this system uses electromagnetic waves to charge batteries

Basic AC power will overwhelmingly remain the dominant charging technology through 2030, providing from 60 to 80 percent of the energy consumed. Most of this charging will take place at homes, workplaces, and via slow-charge public stations. DC fast charging will likely play a much larger role in China, which requires more public-charging infrastructure.

Based on charging profiles and available technologies, the industry could require approximately 40 million chargers across China, Europe, and the United States, representing an estimated $50 billion of cumulative capital investment through 2030 (Exhibit 5). The European Union will need a cumulative 25 million chargers and roughly $17 billion of investment during the same period.While most chargers—over 95 percent—will be in homes and workplaces from a charger-count perspective, the share of capital investment they represent is closer to roughly 70 percent of the total. This reflects the significantly higher cost of faster chargers.
Currently, the business cases for home or workplace chargers are straightforward, given low up-front capital and operating expenses. Making the business case work for public DC fast chargers is more difficult. The reasons are higher up-front capital, higher operating costs, and currently low utilization.
Conclusion to me is clear: as electric-vehicle demand grows and EVs become truly viable alternatives to ICE cars, the industries that shape the related value-chain need to re-group on actions that can enable their broader use. Closing the charging gap will be one such key action which will require seamless, collaborative effort. I feel strongly that Greenbuddies Charging can and will become a significant element of this ecosystem assisting automotive industry to embrace the shift towards zero-emission mobility.

Importance of the geological survey

Geological survey (studies) are indispensable to carry out a correct calculation and design of the foundation of the construction. They are executed in order to avoid instability problems in buildings and various structures.

For the construction of the foundations of a building, bridge or any other important project such as a photovoltaic plant, the type of soil must be previously determined and identified. The calculation procedures for foundations, whether superficial or deep, are directly related to the classification of the terrain, whether it is a granular, cohesive soil or rocky soil.
One of the main objectives in geological studies is to characterize the properties of geological materials and to determine the behavior against imposed construction requests (for example: ramming depth, excavatability).
In Greenbuddies we can carry out a quick and economical geological study that we call „Light geological survey”. The purpose of the Light Geological Survey is to provide a picture of the real situation to the client as well as to installation company in order to avoid of unexpected costs connected with the soil.
Mostly it is more interesting for smaller free field PV plants, where it makes more significant percentage of the total price in comparison with big project of dozens of MWp. This Light Geological Survey is not only limited to small PV plants, but can also be used for large PV plants.
Our main instrument for perform geological studies is the light dynamic penetrometer (DPL). Light dynamic penetrometer is used for testing the thickness of different soil layers (stratifications), control of soil density or consistency and determination of strength and deformation parameters.
The procedure of testing is the following: The hammer of 10 kg in weight is being dropped from height of 50 cm causing the rod with probe to penetrate into the ground. The number of strokes is calculated after every 10 cm of penetration depth.

This test is a cheap option that can anticipate, complement and in some cases completely replace expensive conventional tests (ramming pole or Pull Out test).